The science of controlling combustion of fuel in a diesel engine is focused on two things: increasing efficiency (maximize conversion of fuel to power) and reduction of emissions (undesired end products of combustion).

For the better part of a century, engineers have worked to produce higher speed injection of fuel under increasingly more pressure. Until recently pollution has not been a consideration.

As emission reduction has become a goal, the industry has designed an expensive range of after treatments to deal with pollution of our atmosphere.

The core of the problem is still more precise control over the combustion process -- burn the fuel more cleanly!

GPDT has digitized diesel engine fuel control with a fast and robust magnetostrictive injector combined with responsive proprietary software.

This is a paradigm shift in combustion science!!

How Major Emissions Are Generated

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx). NOx forms by exposure of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen to each other at high temperature. The fraction of oxygen and nitrogen converted into NOx is affected by time at high temperature. Countermeasures limit both time and local temperature.

Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM or Soot). Soot forms by lack of time at high temperature. Countermeasures include higher injection pressure for yet finer atomization, droplet evaporation, and mixing the vapor with oxygen before ignition.

How To Achieve Maximum Fuel Economy

To extract maximum efficiency from a combustion engine we need to follow the guidelines of two 19th-century engineers; Nicolas Sadi Carnot, often described as the "father of thermodynamics," and Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine.

In their own words, they lay out the principles which remain the cornerstone of achieving maximum work from combustion.

What Sadi Carnot predicted can now be much more closely approached: Heat not used to expand matter is wasted.

Carnot "...all change of temperature which is not due to a change of volume of the bodies can be only a useless re-establishment of equilibrium in the caloric. The necessary condition of the maximum is, then, that in the bodies employed to realize the motive power of heat there should not occur any change of temperature which may not be due to a change of volume. Reciprocally, every time that this condition is fulfilled the maximum will be attained. This principle should never be lost sight of in the construction of heat engines; it is its fundamental basis. If it cannot be strictly observed, it should at least be departed from as little as possible." ~Sadi Carnot, 1824

Written almost 200 years ago, that principle is still the focus of the combustion industry to create more efficient engines. However, at the time side effects such as pollution were not considered.

Rudolf Diesel used Carnotís guidelines to invent his diesel engine.

What Rudolf Diesel prescribed GPDT has now made possible: Add the heat gradually.

Diesel ** "Gradual introduction of finely divided combustible into the mass of highly compressed, and therefore highly heated air, during part of the return stroke of the piston. The combustible is added in such a way, that no increase in temperature of the gases, consequent upon the process of combustion, takes place, and therefore the compression curve approximates closely to an isothermal. After ignition, combustion should not be left to itself, but be regulated by an external arrangement, maintaining the right proportion between the pressures, volumes, and temperatures." ~Rudolf Diesel, 1894

The best fuel economy occurs when combustion chamber contents as a whole are not heated above the maximum temperature achieved by the compression stroke. Continuous control of fuel injection enables heat to be added gradually, which saves fuel.

Modern Verification of Carnot and Diesel

GPDT has found the way to make the best efficiency possible.